Numberland - New Processes, New Materialshttp://www.travellertools.deTue, 31 May 2016 04:08:48 +0200Joomla! - Open Source Content Managementde-deBetter membranes for fuel cells membranes for fuel cells

Better membranes for fuel cells

ID: F1510-10

A gas cellular can produce electrical energy through a chemical reaction between a gas and oxygen. Those that use a proton-conducting polymer membrane as the electrolyte are known as proton exchange membrane (PEM) gas cells. These are semipermeable membranes generally made from ionomers and created to carry out protons while being impermeable to gases. Nevertheless, until now, PEM fuel cells have actually unsuccessful mostly because of mechanical failure of the membrane. To increase their durability and life time, a new project had been founded. One of the absolute most common and commercially available PEM materials is the fluoropolymer perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA). The project made great strides in obtaining low equivalent-weight (EW) PFSA ionomers with improved mechanical properties contrasted to the state of the art. Benchmark ionomers may have been hitherto the best materials in the lab. Nevertheless, the task proved that they were not the best in terms of durability when membrane layer electrode assemblies (MEAs) were assessed after 100 hours of continuous procedure. To this end, experts utilized reduced EW ionomers in their bid to prepare membranes with robust mechanical properties. Their approaches relied on the usage of chemical, thermal, and processing and filler reinforcement techniques. In particular, the focus had been on checking out ionic cross-links during emulsion polymerisation and membrane layer casting. This approach leads to non-linear ionomer molecules with large molecular weight that overcome problems linked with membrane layer dimensional changes – i.e. swelling. Researchers also used electrospinning to produce organic and inorganic fibres for mechanically reinforcing the low EW standard ionomers. Through nanofibre reinforcement, scientists reported significant improvement of mechanical properties of the last membranes and greater durability, with conductivity being greater contrasted to the benchmark membrane. Another technique to mechanically strengthen the standard ionomers had been through ionic cross-linking based on nanoparticles. A number of membranes had been prepared utilizing nanoparticle fillers of different hydrophobicity. With in situ tests designed to accelerate mechanical degradation, the stabilised MEAs demonstrated improved durability, with less than 3 % voltage loss after 2 000 hours of operation.


  • Energy
  • Source
  • Fuel
  • Cell
  • Membrane
    ]]> (Administrator)Get in ContactTue, 27 Oct 2015 21:11:56 +0100
    Execute chemical processes more eco-friendly chemical processes more eco-friendly

    Execute chemical processes more eco-friendly

    ID: F1510-09

    Experts have developed unique nano-structured catalysts and selective membrane materials for catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) of great importance to the power sector. They promise enhanced overall performance and sustainability at a lower price. CMRs combine membrane-based separation and a catalytic chemical reaction in one single device. More than 80 % of reactions in the chemical industry exploit catalysts to boost production price and yield. Process intensification allowing significantly less power usage and waste for more cost-effective and sustainable technologies could have tremendous impact on industry. A new project features selected four chemical processes particularly important in the power sector related to the production of pure hydrogen, liquid hydrocarbons and ethylene. The procedures are autothermal reforming (ATR), Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction and oxidative coupling of methane (OCM). In the at the same time the team features in its hands enhanced and more cost-effective catalysts and membranes for all four procedures. Those for the lab-scale studies have been delivered to lovers currently and the materials for the pilot-scale reactors have been selected. The final catalysts for each of the pilot-scale CMRs all demonstrate superior task, selectivity and stability compared to the current state of the art. Lab-scale CMRs for all four processes have been constructed and are in different phases of screening and demonstration. In specific, the FTS and WGS reactors have actually been shown and the oxygen membranes of the ATR and OCM reactors are currently being optimised. Pilot prototypes have been designed for all but the FTS CMR (see figure on module of WGS pilot). Design of the membranes, catalysts and CMRs was supported throughout the development process by modelling and simulation. Completion of the task will be accompanied by life-cycle and environmental analyses, the initial results of which have actually currently been obtained. The staff wants to guarantee safety against explosion. A risk assessment features been finished and safety recommendations proposed. Lastly, the staff features developed the framework for an upcoming socioeconomic analysis.


    • Chemical
    • Process
    • Catalyst
    • Nano
    • Membrane
    • Material
      ]]> (Administrator)Get in ContactTue, 27 Oct 2015 22:11:51 +0100
      Replacing silicon as an basic electronic material silicon as an basic electronic material

      Replacing silicon as an basic electronic material

      ID: F1510-08

      Metal-oxide nanoparticles have actually electrical, magnetic and mechanical properties enabling the manufacturing of transparent devices through patterned deposition on versatile substrates at low temperatures. This might be the explanation why they are getting widespread interest as an enabling technology for next-generation electronic devices. To unlock their full potential, researchers adopted a holistic approach. Experimental research work on the synthesis of oxide materials suitable for display electronics and chemical sensing is supported by modelling of material properties. Material synthesis is focused on active semiconductor oxides and passive transparent performing oxides with binary, ternary and quaternary structures. Testing of oxide material electric properties is conducted using established methods along with the technique of four coefficients (M4C). M4C is based on dimensions of all coefficients regarding thermo-magneto-transport impacts of the specimens under evaluation — particularly, resistivity, Hall, Seebeck and Nernst coefficients. Developed during the program of the project, this brand new technique enables the characterisation of metal oxides with transportation characteristics below the Johnson sound level. The new oxide materials have a broad range of programs. The research work is, nevertheless, centred on touch screens with organic light-emitting diode arrays and brand new illumination and sensing concepts that are of interest to the automotive sector. Three prototypes have actually been developed collaboratively to show how newly created materials can be utilised in specific items. Early on in the project, an active matrix display overlaid on a versatile pressure sensor had been developed to take input from the motorist and provide comments. A 2nd prototype shows the possibility to integrate lighting into the practical coatings of house windows. Finally, a p-type sensor to monitor atmosphere quality in the cabin runs at lower temperatures than sensors available on the market.


      • Electronic
      • Material
      • Silicon
      • Nano
      • Particle
      • Transparent
      • Deposition
        ]]> (Administrator)Get in ContactTue, 27 Oct 2015 22:11:46 +0100
        Polymers for high temperatures for high temperatures

        Polymers for high temperatures

        ID: F1510-07

        Many commercial and commercial programs require the use of elements that withstand very high conditions. Metals and ceramics have actually mostly filled this need with matrix composites capable of withstanding up to a number of thousand degrees Celsius. High-temperature polymeric composites would allow programs to take advantage of their lighter fat, much better exhaustion properties and ductility. Such materials could have significant effect on the weight and subsequent fuel usage and emissions associated with air transportation. A brand new task expects to deliver durable polymers and composites together using the required large-scale production technologies. The materials and procedures will probably be key enablers for development of tomorrow's eco-friendly aero engines and, in particular, turbofan engines. Scientists have concentrated on development of a cost-effective organic matrix resin that performs at 360 levels Celsius and can be effectively processed into carbon fibre-reinforced organic matrix composite components. Now at its midpoint, the project has almost reached that goal. The team developed a brand new polymeric resin system with demonstrated thermal security under the target conditions. More, the considerable characterisation confirms that the materials should be well-suited to the selected composites manufacturing procedures. During the second and last year, scientists plan to demonstrate the high-temperature polymer composites and related production technologies required to support the EU's objectives for lightweight and eco-friendly aircraft.


        • Polymer
        • High
        • Temperature
        • Carbon
        • Fibre
 (Administrator)Get in ContactTue, 27 Oct 2015 22:11:41 +0100
          Towards a Li-air battery a Li-air battery

          Towards a Li-air battery

          ID: F1510-06

          A Li metal anode as an alternative of graphite and the use of oxygen (O2) from the atmosphere as a cathode guarantees up to 10 times greater energy thickness. However, O2 decrease following response with Li-ions leads to deposition of a solid item within cathode porosities and to cathode clogging. Scientists addressed this problem with a radical approach perhaps not yet tried. Traditional metal-air batteries, as well as fuel cells, rely on three-phase contact points inside the cathode. The connections guarantee electron transport, hydrogen transportation and O2 influx. Nevertheless, in the situation of Li-air, this operating configuration changes the porosity and hydrophobicity of the cathode because of the development of the reduction products at the three-phase contact points. In groundbreaking studies, the group investigated a two-phase contact-point electrode setup (a flooded setup). The electrolyte or charge carrier is also used as the O2 carrier to harvest O2 from ambient air through an outside O2 harvesting device. The idea employs environmentally benign ionic liquid electrolytes and nano-structured electrodes that harvest dry O2 from the atmosphere. Experts ready and tested anode and cathode materials, developed the O2 harvesting concept, and prepared and integrated into the electrode systems numerous ionic liquids as well as solid polymer electrolytes. Fundamental studies provided physicochemical parameters for the model of a complete Li-air battery pack. Although the useful execution of Li-air batteries is not anticipated for another ten years or two, LABOHR has made a major share to the development work. Studies confirmed the value of utilizing ionic liquid-based electrolyte solutions to deal with solvent reactivity and volatility issues, and highlighted the issues of operating the Li-air battery in three-phase configuration. The idea of soluble redox ‘shuttle’ also opened a new possible course toward useful Li/O2 battery. In the meantime, the studies of electrolytes and electrode materials are most likely to discover short-term application in the Li-ion battery field.


          • Energy
          • Storage
          • Air
          • Lithium
          • Battery
   (Administrator)Get in ContactTue, 27 Oct 2015 22:11:36 +0100
            Nano technology for hydrogen storage technology for hydrogen storage

            Nano technology for hydrogen storage

            ID: F1510-05

            One of the biggest hurdles for unveiling carbon-free vehicles that are driven by hydrogen stays finding a material capable of keeping enough hydrogen. Unfortunately, neither compressed hydrogen gasoline nor liquefied hydrogen is most likely to be capable of sufficient volumetric thickness. A new project created theoretical modelling, synthesis, characterisation and evaluation of novel nanocomposite materials for hydrogen storage space. It combined the newest developments in metal hydrides – compounds that bind hydrogen and launch it upon heating – with unique principles for tailoring material properties. Experimental work had been geared towards integrating metal hydride nanoparticles into nanocarbon templates that served as scaffolds to form nanocomposites. Cryo-infiltration had been one of the novel methods used for planning such composites. Researchers enhanced properties such as working temperature and stress, simplicity of reversibility of binding, and conversation between hydrides and the environment for improved security. Coating hydride nanoparticles into self-assembled polymer levels or encapsulating them in polymer shells provided stability and security against oxidation. NANOHY introduced advanced techniques such as inelastic or small-angle neutron scattering for investigating nano-confined systems. Experts demonstrated for the first time nanodispersion of complex hydrides into a microporous carbon scaffold. Magnesium hydride, amongst the best-studied metal hydrides, was shown to show modified thermodynamic properties when integrated into the porous carbon supports. Experts concluded that these thermodynamic effects are restricted to reversible hydrides and particles with sizes less than 2 nm. Finally, scientists successfully scaled up nano-confined hydrides and incorporated them into a laboratory test tank with promising results – a real breakthrough in the hard issue of hydrogen storage space for a hydrogen economy. The hydride nanoparticle demonstrated excellent cyclability, getting rid of the need for a catalyst. Twenty hydrogenation/dehydrogenation cycles had been performed. Except for hydrogen storage, other areas could benefit from this research, such as development of battery materials with greater storage capacities, better safety and improved cyclability. The task disseminated its findings in a number of magazines and at seminars and workshops.



            • Nano
            • Technology
            • Energy
            • Storage
            • Carbon
            • Hydrogen
     (Administrator)Get in ContactTue, 27 Oct 2015 22:11:30 +0100
              Nano Technology against Emissions Technology against Emissions

              Nano Technology against Emissions

              ID: F1510-04

              The usage of fossil fuels has developed a quantity of problems for which countries are intensively developing solutions to boost sustainability. All solutions require some type of separation and purification, which is currently achieved through primarily energy-intensive processes such as absorption, cryogenic separation and distillation. Polymer membranes are considered one of the absolute most energy-efficient methods for separating gases. However, many polymers either have actually low permeability or are not selective toward one gasoline over another. A project therefore developed novel polymers that effectively separate gas mixtures. The project looked at proper combinations of nanofillers with microcavities inside them that have actually well-defined size and porosity dispersed in advanced nanoporous polymers. Addition of nanofillers such as carbon nanotubes, zeolites, mesoporous oxides and metal-organic frameworks permitted increasing the polymer-free volume and creating preferential networks for mass transportation. Other than developing large amount polymers such as polynorbornenes, researchers also produced polymers of intrinsic microporosity. Such polymers are unable to pack effectively in the solid state and therefore trap enough free volume. Due to their contorted framework, they allow fast transport of tiny gas particles. Scientists developed a new polymerisation effect based on old chemistry – Tröger's base formation – that allowed them to prepare an extremely stiff polymer framework. Prospective programs of the technique should expand far beyond planning polymers just for gas separation membranes. Due to its extreme rigidity, the polymer functions as a molecular sieve, hindering transportation of larger gasoline molecules. To become an attractive alternative, pervaporation membranes need to be improved to become highly selective for ethanol over water. The task significantly improved understanding of fouling processes occurring at the membranes to enhance ethanol data recovery from fermentation broth. The project's innovative membrane layer technology should also offer an alternative to conventional processes for CO2 separation in energy stations. Despite their prospective, the polymer materials require to be scaled to enable further analysis of the separation procedure.



              • Nano
              • Technology
              • Emission
              • Fossil
              • Fuel
              • Energy
       (Administrator)Get in ContactTue, 27 Oct 2015 22:11:25 +0100
                Replacement for Cr6+ for Cr6+

                Replacement for Cr6+

                ID: F1510-03

                Surface finishing is critical to the security and performance of numerous metals in a variety of applications. Electroplating making use of hexavalent chromium has been the treatment of option for components in harsh environments, but the aerospace industry must today find an eco-friendly alternative.
                In TSAA, tartaric acid is added to sulphuric acid anodising bathrooms, generating a porous movie that protects against corrosion resistance. Experts set out to validate on an industrial scale a novel TSAA process, including pre- and post-treatment of aluminium.
                Researchers developed pre-treatment procedures for inspection and cleaning of parts before anodising. Process parameters including time, heat, shower levels and electric parameters for anodisation (electrochemical conversion to form the porous oxide coating) were then optimised. Post-treatment consisted of hot-water sealing, a critical final step closing the porous aluminium oxide layer after anodising.
                In addition to the technical requirements, researchers additionally conducted economic, security and danger analyses. The group evaluated chemical usage in light of conformity using the European Commission's Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It also considered exhaust fumes (particularly in the working location), waste and wastewater production. Recycling routes for wastewater and chemical compounds were additionally recommended. Risk evaluation concentrated on work-related wellness dangers.
                Failure tree analysis, design review based on failure mode, and a failure modes and results analysis were performed since well. These enabled recognition of possible failure modes and the importance of each.
                The detailed manufacturing plan and manual of process procedures and criteria delivered at close will allow increased use of lightweight aluminium alloys in harsh environments without the use of harsh chemical substances. This will enhance the competition of EU aerospace manufacturers and ecological and occupational wellness and security.



                • Oxidation
                • Protection
                • Corrosion
                • Resistance
                • Aluminium
         (Administrator)Get in ContactTue, 27 Oct 2015 22:11:19 +0100
                  More carbon fibre for cars carbon fibre for cars

                  More carbon fibre for cars

                  ID: F1510-02

                  In addition to being lightweight for gas efficiency, high-performance composite materials for the transport sector should have the potential to be used in fast manufacturing procedures. Presently, production volumes tend to be restricted to a few hundred or a few thousand products per year for aerospace or recreations automobile applications. A project changed that by developing two brand new high-volume materials for carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) components for vehicles. The first developed system was advanced polyurethane (PU) thermoset matrix materials that showed improved mechanical overall performance and reduced period times whenever compared with the many frequently utilized epoxy matrix. Replacing this traditional matrix system with PU also enabled combining fast curing with high toughness and a large glass change temperature. Addition of nanoparticles in PU allowed further improvements in processing – reduced resin viscosity and effect kinetics – as well as in thermal and electric properties. Consortium partners built demonstrators making use of this brand new material in structural parts of a vehicle. These included the inner bonnet, rear seat back panel, and the B-pillar between the front door and the back home. Another breakthrough was to hybridise self-reinforced composites (SRCs) – polypropylene (PP) and polyamide – with carbon fibres. The task then followed a number of techniques to develop two SRC versions. In the very first instance, a little quantity of carbon fibres permitted SRC stiffness to increase without reducing toughness. In the 2nd instance, bigger quantities resulted in increased toughness, with rigidity remaining large. Reduced production times were accomplished through the thermoforming procedure.
                  The advanced materials produced outcome in quick cycle times, showing unique promise for cost-effective, higher-volume manufacturing of high-performance CFRP parts.



                  • Energy
                  • Carbon
                  • Fibre
                  • Car
                  • Lightweight
           (Administrator)Get in ContactTue, 27 Oct 2015 22:11:14 +0100
                    Better materials for better LEDs materials for better LEDs

                    Better materials for better LEDs

                    ID: F1510-01

                    Keeping great promises for reduced energy usage and high conversion efficiencies, lighting fixtures with solid-state light sources have the possible to revolutionise the lighting industry. Additional improvements in light-emitting efficiency at high currents, with excellent color making at low expense would considerably speed up the widespread uptake of the technology. A new project is investigating the materials for these improved lighting products by developing new large-area semi-polar templates utilizing sapphire and silicon substrates. These semipolar templates help reduce the inbuilt electric fields in LEDs which affect their color security and effectiveness and supply a big area, low cost platform for the growth of the LED levels. The task is additionally making use of the indium aluminium gallium nitride (InAlGaN) material for the light-emitting layers, focusing on blue and yellow emission. A major challenge is patterning of the wafer to produce and coalesce semi-polar planes on the structured sapphire substrate. To this end, experts are assessing the impact of substrate fine orientation and growth parameters through X-ray measurements, luminescence and atomic-scale imaging. Metalorganic and hydride vapour phase epitaxy are used to develop levels on the substrates. The active light-emitting material comprises of quantum wells that have actually large optical efficiency and excellent color purity. Project partners used the HVPE technique to overgrow GaN on top of a GaN layer grown by MOVPE that had been at first prepared on pre-structured sapphire. InGaN layers had been then grown on semi-polar GaN templates with various growth conditions. Semi-polar InGaN structures with different thicknesses had been optimised, reaching large transformation light-emitting efficiencies in the blue and yellow spectra. A move from growing products on semi-polar substrates is assisting to overcome issues related to decrease in LED light-emitting efficiency. Changing present lighting technologies with solid-state lighting based on InGaN LEDs should enable a decrease in electrical energy by up to 5 %.



                    • Energy
                    • LED
                    • Light
                    • Source
                    • Optics
             (Administrator)Get in ContactSat, 03 Oct 2015 22:07:04 +0200